Ethical Guidelines

When submitting a paper for review, an author must certify the following:

I acknowledge that in submitting this paper, I am aware of the Journal’s policy on plagiarism. Further, I acknowledge that I will report to the editor(s) of the journal all of my manuscripts that have substantial overlap with the submitted paper. I also certify that the copyright for all portions of this paper will be transferred to the journal upon acceptance.

Journal Guidelines for Plagiarism

The authors are required to acknowledge that they are aware of the policy on plagiarism and copyright when signing the article’s copyright transfer agreement.

1. Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the copying of ideas, text, data and other creative work (e.g. tables, figures, and graphs) and presenting it as original research without proper citation. Therefore, to avoid plagiarism, the authors need to obtain permission to reuse previous published work (even if properly cited) from the holder of the copyright (which is typically not the author).

It is essential that the authors tell editors and reviewers when any portion of a paper is based heavily on previous work, even if this work has been written by one or more of the authors of the paper. It is the responsibility of the author not only to cite the previous work, including his or her own, but also to provide an indication of the extent to which a paper depends on this work.

According to these principles, authors should recognize the following guidelines:

  1. Plagiarism covers the use of ideas that have been presented in prior work, regardless of whether the ideas are expressed using the same words, tables or graphics.
  2. Word-for-word copying of the work by others must be clearly identified.
  3. More extensive word-for-word copying of one’s own work is permitted (with permission from the holder of any copyright), but this must be clearly indicated in the article.
  4. Proper attribution of an idea is required even if a journal operates with double-blind review.
  5. The first paper in which a creative contribution occurs (text, ideas, analysis) gets the credit for the contribution, even if it has not yet been accepted for publication. Subsequent papers (by the same or different authors), are expected to cite the first paper (even if it is under review).
  6. The use and reuse of empirical data follows the same principles as other types of research, although some issues are unique to the nature of data as opposed to ideas expressed in text and mathematics.

The primary goal of this policy is transparent, so that the editorial staff will understand what is new and original, and the degree to which the paper is drawing on the work of others or the authors. If you are not sure how to properly give credit to the work that is presented elsewhere (such as a parallel publication which is also under review or a conference proceeding), the best strategy is to describe the situation in a cover letter to the editor.

2. Procedures and Penalties

The assessment of appropriate penalties and notification will follow the guidelines set by the Journal’s Editors as summarized below.

The respective Editorial Boards are the primary committee in detecting plagiarism in the submitted manuscripts. Apart from that, the complainants will bring cases of suspected author misconduct to the attention of the Managing Editor. The Managing Editor has to ensure that the following documentations are provided:

a. Written description of the alleged misconduct
b. Title of the manuscript
c. Full list of authors’ names

For alleged plagiarized manuscript should consist of:
a. Title
b. List of authors’ names and publication in which the manuscript appeared

For the use of ideas, the contents are:
a. Title of idea
b. Full list of creators and date of creation
c. Copies of both manuscripts
d. Full name and address of complainant.

The Managing Editor, after noticing a suspicion of plagiarism, will review all evidence and make a preliminary judgment regarding the claim. As part of the Managing Editor's deliberation, it is required that the authors be contacted and provided an opportunity to rebut the charge. Lastly, if the Managing Editor finds sufficient evidence for justification of a charge of plagiarism, the Managing Editor shall appoint an ad hoc committee to make a determination of the charge. This committee should consist of, at a minimum, the Managing Editor and at least three other editorial team members.

The ad hoc committee shall at first contact the author(s) in writing and ask for a response to the charge. Based on the response, the ad hoc committee may obtain additional information, which may include a review of the manuscript in question by experts to help determine the level of plagiarism. This committee should also determine whether the charge is to be upheld and also the sanction, which is to be imposed against the authors. Sanctions would typically include a ban from submission to the journal for a period of time. It has the sole responsibility and authority to determine the sanction. Sanctions may be applied unevenly in the case of multiple authors.

Once the finding and the sanction are determined, the Managing Editor will communicate the results in writing to the author(s). If the charge is not upheld, the process ends and no further actions are taken. In particular, the results are only revealed to those who are already involved in the process.

Given the serious nature of a charge of plagiarism, it is required that confidentiality be maintained throughout the process. The charge of plagiarism, supporting materials and outcome are only to be made known to those persons who are involved in the review process.

If plagiarism has been identified, and after all appeals are exhausted, the ad hoc committee will determine the appropriate steps to ensure that it does not happen again. If the plagiarized paper has appeared in printing, authors have to notify the readership. These steps may include notification to the employer(s) of the author(s).


Neither the editors nor the Editorial Board are responsible for authors’ expressed opinions, views, and the contents of published manuscripts in the journal. The originality, proofreading of manuscripts and errors are the sole responsibilities of the individual authors. All manuscripts submitted for review and publication in the journal will go under double-blind reviews for authenticity, ethical issues, and useful contributions. Decisions made by the reviewers are final for the publication in the journal.